Funding for this research was provided by:
Mitsubishi Foundation (N/A)
Received: 22 December 2018
Accepted: 1 June 2020
First Online: 9 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The present study was approved by the Ethics Committees of the University of Tokyo (Review No. 10321) and the National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center (No. R13–063). Permissions were needed to access the data and the committees granted to do so. The committees approved opt-out consent by patients.
: AA is President of the Japan Association for Bioethics; this paper reflects the author’s personal academic analyses and opinions and does not represent JAB’s official position. Other authors have no conflict of interest to declare.