Funding for this research was provided by:
University of California San Francisco Population Health and Health Equity Scholar award (7504575)
Received: 1 July 2021
Accepted: 14 February 2022
First Online: 23 February 2022
: The authors declare no competing interests.
: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki for research involving human subjects. This was secondary data analysis; therefore, ethical clearance was not required from the authors of this study. However, all the GDHS surveys report that the surveys were approved by ICF International and the Ghana Health Service Research Ethics Committee. The Measure DHS Program also ensured that the survey protocols complied with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services regulations for the protection of human subjects. Especially, both written and informed consent was obtained before data were collected from the women. Minors were not included in this study.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.