Funding for this research was provided by:
Taipei Medical University (03G0000004A)
Tsai family Fund and Boyd-Elsie Welin Professorship (na)
Received: 21 January 2020
Accepted: 2 August 2020
First Online: 15 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The experimental protocol was established, according to the ethical guidelines and was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of University of Southern California (IACUC protocol number 20212). The detail of mice euthanasia methods is following the IACCU guideline, anesthesia with CO2 or isoflurane (1–3% inhalant to effect) will be used for euthanasia of mice. Isoflurane is the standard inhalant anesthetic, delivered to effect in concentrations of 1–3% in oxygen (up to 5% for initial induction), using a precision vaporizer. After surgery, the anesthetic monitoring of mice includes testing of rear foot reflexes before any incision is made, and continual observation of respiratory pattern, mucous membrane color, and responsiveness to manipulations and rear foot reflexes throughout the procedure. This research is not an application for clinical research, an institutional review board (IRB) is not applicable.
: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.