Funding for this research was provided by:
Stanford University School of Medicine: Medical Scholars Research Program (11616)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2018-08-28
Received: 29 October 2017
Accepted: 15 August 2018
First Online: 28 August 2018
: Dr. Emily Yang Liu, MD, is a Neurology resident at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, a graduate of the Stanford School of Medicine, a previous research affiliate of the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, and a former post-baccalaureate fellow of the Stanford Center for Integration of Research on Genetics and Ethics.Mr. Jason Neil Batten, MA, is a fourth-year medical student at the Stanford School of Medicine and a research affiliate of the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics. He has a master’s degree in bioethics from Loyola Marymount University.Dr. Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell, DrPH, is a research scholar at the Stanford School of Medicine, focusing on program evaluation and innovation in medical education. Additionally, she leads courses on medical education curricular theory and pedagogy, innovative teaching methods, quantitative and qualitative research methods, evaluation of curriculum, and researching outcomes.Dr. Audrey Shafer, MD, is a Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine at the Stanford School of Medicine and Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System. She is on faculty at the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics and co-director of the Stanford Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration.
: This exempt study protocol (protocol ID 33940) was approved by the Stanford University Institutional Review Board (IRB number 4947, panel 6). Additionally, verbal consent was approved by the Stanford University Institutional Review Board. Verbal consent was obtained at the start of all recorded telephone surveys and interviews and documented in original transcripts of these conversations.
: Our manuscript does not contain details, images, or videos related to any individual participant. Study participants gave verbal consent to participate and for their de-identified responses to be used as part of the study, including publication.
: Dr. Audrey Shafer is the co-director of the Stanford Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration. Dr. Sylvia Bereknyei Merrell is an Associate Editor of BMC Medical Education. There are no other competing interests for any other study author.
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