Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (24659239)
Received: 7 February 2018
Accepted: 26 September 2018
First Online: 3 October 2018
: NT is a general practitioner and Assistant Professor of the Department of Education for Community Oriented Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan. MA is a general practitioner and the Manager of the Department of Medical Education, Saku Central Hospital, Saku, Japan. TS is a general practitioner and Associate Professor of Medical Education Development Center, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan. TO is a qualitative researcher in educational science and Professor of the Department of Educational Sciences, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan. He is inventor of the Steps for Coding and Theorization qualitative data analysis method. NB is a general practitioner and Professor Extraordinary of the Medical Education Center, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Japan. He is also a Professor Emeritus of Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.
: The Ethical Committee of Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine approved the study (approval number 2012–0027). All patients provided written informed consent to participate in students’ ambulatory clerkship to the attending doctor. Patients received an explanation that refusal to participate in the clerkship would not be detrimental to their treatment. All participating students were recruited from the official clerkship groups that rotated through the department. Students were recruited by NT at the close of the peer role-play exercise on Wednesday. All students were assured that their decision to participate or to withdraw from the study would not affect their final evaluation. Students provided written informed consent to participate, and for audio- and video-recording of the focus group discussions. No rewards or incentives were given to students.
: Not applicable.
: Department of Education for Community Oriented Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan (the current affiliation of NT) was established by donations from Aichi prefecture and Nagoya city in Japan.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.