Funding for this research was provided by:
H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions (654857)
Received: 28 February 2020
Accepted: 9 October 2020
First Online: 16 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: We obtained ethical approval from the ethical committee at Ludwig-Maximilians Universität Munich, Germany (reference number: 260–15) for an anonymous analysis of the data. Consent to participate is not applicable. The virtual patients provided to the learners were fictional and not based on any real persons.
: Not applicable.
: MA is CEO of the non-for-profit company Instruct, which develops and distributes the VP system CASUS, which was used to collect the summary statements. IH is a member of the editorial board of BMC Medical Education. Otherwise, the authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.