Received: 11 March 2021
Accepted: 27 May 2021
First Online: 7 June 2021
: The Human Research Committee of Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Mass General Brigham approved all the study procedures, and all the participants provided electronic written informed consent. All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Weaver reports consulting fees from the University of Pittsburgh and the National Sleep Foundation.Dr. Landrigan has served as a paid consultant to the Midwest Lighting Institute to help study the effect of blue light on health care provider performance and safety. Dr. Landrigan has consulted with and holds equity in the I-PASS Institute, which seeks to train institutions in best handoff practices and aid in their implementation. Dr. Landrigan has received consulting fees from the Missouri Hospital Association / Executive Speakers Bureau for consulting on I-PASS. In addition, Dr. Landrigan has received monetary awards, honoraria, and travel reimbursement from multiple academic and professional organizations for teaching and consulting on sleep deprivation, physician performance, handoffs, and safety, and has served as an expert witness in cases regarding patient safety and sleep deprivation.Dr. Barger reports consulting fees from University of Pittsburgh, Sygma, Insight, Boston Children’s Hospital, Charles A. Czeisler and Puget Sound Pilots.Dr. Winn, Dr. O’Donnell, Mr. Sullivan and Dr. Robbins do not have any competing interests.