Received: 10 November 2020
Accepted: 12 November 2020
First Online: 30 December 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The proprietary EHR data used in this study was extracted from Xi’an Jiaotong University and the study has been approved by Xi’an Jiaotong University. Requirement for individual patient consent was waived since all protected health information was de-identified. De-identification was performed in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) standards. Deletion of protected health information (PHI) from structured data sources (e.g., database fields that provide patient name or date of birth) was straightforward. Research use of publicly available MIMIC-III has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts Institute of Technology [CitationRef removed].
: Not applicable.
: PZ is the member of the editorial board of BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. The authors declare that they have no other competing interests.