Funding for this research was provided by:
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (IIR 16-024, IIR 16-024, IIR 16-024, IIR 16-024)
Institute for Healthcare Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan
Michigan Integrated Center for Health Analytics and Medical Prediction (MiCHAMP), University of Michigan
Received: 24 September 2021
Accepted: 30 November 2021
First Online: 14 December 2021
: Approval to conduct the study was gained from the Institutional Review Board at the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System and informed consent from patients was waived.
: Not applicable.
: Lauren A. Beste, MD, MSc: None. Xuefei Zhang, MS: None. Grace Su, MD: Is an equity owner of Applied Morphomics and Prenovo. Dr. Su has a patent with the University of Michigan regarding image analysis of liver disease. Dr. Su has received funding from the NIH, VA and DoD. No conflicts with this manuscript. Tony Van, MS: None. George N. Ioannou, MD, MS: None. Monica Tincopa, MD, MSc: None. Boang Liu, PhD: None. Amit Singal, MD: Has received research funding from Gilead and Abbvie. Ji Zhu, PhD: None. Akbar K. Waljee, MD, MSc: None.