Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (51228)
Received: 27 April 2018
Accepted: 5 July 2018
First Online: 16 July 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval was obtained in each country by the lead institution in that country as follows: in Kenya from the Institutional Research and Ethics Committee of Moi University and Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret (FAN:IREC 000423), and district health management at all involved facilities; in Nigeria from the Research and Ethics Committee of the Oyo State Ministry of Health, Ibadan, and Ethics Review Committee of Zamfara State, Gusau; in South Africa from the University of the Witwatersrand Human Research Ethics Committee (Medical) M090674, from relevant ethical review bodies of each province and from the National Department of Health; in Uganda from the Makerere University Faculty of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (REF_2009_134) and the Uganda National Council of Science and Technology. In addition permission was sought from district health management in all the involved facilities and all participants signed informed consent.
: Not applicable. No patient data and no individual participant data is reported.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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