Funding for this research was provided by:
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (HHSA-290-2013-00002-C (contract awarded to Truven Health Analytics / IBM Watson Health))
Received: 11 April 2019
Accepted: 8 April 2020
First Online: 8 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The HCUP databases used for this study are de-identified when received by the researchers and no one on the study team has any access to any identification information. AHRQ’s Human Protections Administrator has determined this project does not constitute research involving human subjects. The HCUP data are not medical records, but hospital discharge billing records that are collected by hospitals, sent to statewide data agencies, and uniformly formatted by AHRQ. The data is permitted to be used by AHRQ under provisions spelled out in a Memorandum of Agreement with each HCUP Partner, and researchers must abide by the terms spelled out in the HCUP Data Use Agreements (ExternalRef removed). No additional administrative permissions were required to access and use the HCUP data.
: Not applicable.
: The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no personal or financial competing interests to disclose.