Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute for Health Research (12/178/18)
Received: 27 March 2020
Accepted: 8 September 2020
First Online: 18 September 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics approval for use of pseudo-anonymised National Cardiac Arrest Audit data linked to HES and ONS data was given by the NRES Committee NorthWest-Lancaster (15-SW-0151). Approval to process patient identifiable information without patient consent was given by the Health Research Authority Confidentiality Advisory Group (Ref 5/CAG/0113).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.