Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (R21/R33 DA035645))
Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (24XT-0008)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (K24 AA025703)
Health Services Research and Development (CDA 12-276)
Received: 3 April 2020
Accepted: 22 October 2020
First Online: 11 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Study procedures were approved by the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) and KPNC Institutional Review Boards and included waivers of informed consent. The study team also received administrative permission from Kaiser Permanente to access raw data from the HIV Registry and other electronic health record data.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare they have no competing interests.