Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (No. 17K17486)
Kyoto University SPIRITS
Received: 30 January 2021
Accepted: 2 August 2021
First Online: 14 August 2021
: YS is a Japanese midwifery researcher who obtained her PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. She has been conducting research on maternal child health and midwifery in Tanzania since 2008. She speaks fluent English and Kiswahili which were necessary for conducting this study. KI is also a Japanese midwife and obtained a master’s degree under the supervision of YS. She had 3-year volunteer experience in Tanzania and is fluence in Kiswahili. NH is a Japanese nurse and a data scientist who was involved in the study as a PhD student of YS. KK is a Japanese nurse scientist who is specializing in statistics. BM and DM are Tanzanian midwifery researchers who provided cultural understanding and language translation for the data collection.
: The study was conducted based on the Declaration of Helsinki, the Ethical Guidelines for Medical and Health Research Involving Human Subjects, and the regulation of Kyoto University. The informed consent was obtained on the online form as the information gathered was unidentifiable and the study risk was minimal. Ethical clearance and permissions were obtained from (1) Kyoto University Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, Ethics Committee (C1446), (2) National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania (NIMR/HQ/R.8/Vol.IX/1604), and (3) Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (No. 2013–273-NA-2013-101).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.