Received: 24 September 2021
Accepted: 3 March 2022
First Online: 24 March 2022
: This study was approved by the Human Subjects Protection Committee at RAND which is the RAND Corporation’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) that reviews all research involving human subjects, as required by federal regulations (IRB ID: 2017–0726). The study team had an IRB-approved (from the Human Subjects Protection Committee at RAND) waiver of consent to receive administrative data from all EDs. In addition, informed consent language was included in all patient communications for survey materials. All language was reviewed and approved by the IRB at the study team’s institution (the Human Subjects Protection Committee at RAND). All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.