Funding for this research was provided by:
University of Zurich’s University Research Priority Program “Evolution in Action: From Genomes to Ecosystems”
the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie (845479)
European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) long-term fellowship (ALTF 1086-2018)
Received: 5 June 2020
Accepted: 29 July 2020
First Online: 28 August 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All human samples used in this study are more than 70 years old and anonymous. Therefore, ethical approval for the genetic analysis is not required under current Swiss law (ExternalRef removed) but ethical considerations were taken into account during sampling and storage, following the recommendations of the International Council of Museums (ICOM). Permits related to the excavation cannot be supplied, as it took place between 1902 and 1905. All human samples used in this study are in the custody of the University of Tübingen Anthropological Collection and the Felix von Luschan Skull Collection in Berlin. Both collections have agreed to the sampling for this study in the framework of a scientific collaboration, fully support this study and the curators are included as coauthors in this study.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare no competing interests.