Received: 12 December 2017
Accepted: 23 April 2018
First Online: 16 May 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The data source included de-identified information, and this project was deemed not to be human subject research by the institutional review board of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; ethics review board approval for such studies is not required.
: All authors have approved this manuscript for publication.
: Dr. Alexander serves as the Chair of the FDA’s Peripheral and Central Nervous System Advisory Committee, serves as a paid consultant and Chairs a QuintilesIMS Advisory Board, serves on the Advisory Board of MesaRx Innovations, and is a member of OptumRx’s National P&T Committee. This arrangement has been reviewed and approved by Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict of interest policies. In addition, this study applies the ACG case-mix/risk adjustment methodology, developed at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Although ACGs are an important aspect of the paper, the goal of this paper is not to directly assess or evaluate the methodology. The Johns Hopkins University receives royalties for non-academic use of software based on the ACG methodology. Dr. Chang, Dr. Kharrazi, Dr. Bodycombe and Dr. Weiner receive a portion of their salary support from this revenue.
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