Funding for this research was provided by:
Heart Foundation Australia
Received: 26 December 2018
Accepted: 29 May 2019
First Online: 12 July 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This systematic review and meta-analysis includes previously published observational studies and public-use data from NHIS. In addition, the NHIS was approved by the National Center for Health Statistics ethics review board. We could not influence the design of the prior studies upon which this work is based and cannot comment on individual ethics approval or consent. Patients were not involved in the conduct of our epidemiological study, and there is no identifiable data.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.