Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council (G0902393/99558, MR/M015084/1)
AstraZeneca (PhD studentship)
National Institute for Health Research
Received: 11 March 2019
Accepted: 1 October 2019
First Online: 20 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Anonymized primary care EHRs were obtained via the CPRD which has broad ethical approval for purely observational research using linked primary/secondary care data for supporting medical purposes that are in the interests of patients and the wider public. Linkages with hospital EHR were performed by NHS Digital, the statutory body in England responsible for providing core healthcare information technology and curating many of the national datasets. The study was approved by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medicines and Health care products Regulatory Agency in the UK, protocol number 14_133.
: Not applicable.
: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at ExternalRef removed and declare no support from any organisation for the submitted work, no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years and no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. JTT has received research grant funding from Pfizer-BMS (manufacturer of a direct oral anticoagulant) for a completed clinical trial on atrial fibrillation in stroke. AB has been an advisory panel member for Boehringer Ingelheim and Novo Nordisk in the last 3 years.