Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (AI063135)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U19 AI089686)
National Health and Medical Research Council (GNT1161627, GNT1016443)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Received: 18 August 2019
Accepted: 29 October 2019
First Online: 9 December 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approvals for the three cohort studies were granted by Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research Institutional Review Board (2006, 09.24: 2008, 07.20; 2013, 11.16) and PNG Medical Research and Advisory Committee [2006, 05.19; 2008, 07.34; 2013, 11.21]. Voluntary written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of the children following community awareness and individual study information sessions.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.