Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council (MR/M009351/1, G0902313, MC_UU_00011/6, MR/N011317/1)
National Institutes of Health (R01 DK10324)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (HHSN273201800005I, NIEHS ZO1 ES49019)
Wellcome Trust (102215/2/13/2, WT202849)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL105756)
European Commission (HEALTH-F2-2008-201865-GEFOS)
Received: 12 August 2019
Accepted: 10 February 2020
First Online: 23 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The data collection in UK Biobank was approved by the NHS National Research Ethics Service (Ref 11/NW/0382). Ethical approval for the study was granted by the ALSPAC Law and Ethics Committee and the Local Research Ethics Committees. Ethical approval for the different cohorts contributing to the CHARGE, SPIROMETA, and GPC consortia was obtained from local institution ethical committees. All participants provided written informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: DAL receives (or has received in the last 10 years) research support from national and international government and charitable bodies, Roche Diagnostics, and Medtronic for research unrelated to the current work. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.