Funding for this research was provided by:
NIHR School for Primary Care Research (Doctoral Studentship, Evidence Synthesis Working Group no. 390)
Received: 16 September 2019
Accepted: 12 February 2020
First Online: 30 March 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Not applicable.
: Not applicable.
: GCR is funded by the NIHR SPCR Research Doctoral Studentship, the Naji Foundation, and the Rotary Foundation. KRM has received funding from NIHR and the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) to conduct independent research. TBM is financially supported by the Rhodes Trust to study for a Doctor of Philosophy. NJD is employed on BG’s grants from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation and is financially supported by the Naji Foundation to study for a Doctor of Philosophy. CK is funded by the NIHR SPCR and the Wellcome Trust/Royall Society Sir Henry Dale Fellowship. JKA has written papers on adverse drug reactions in peer-reviewed journals and has received royalties from textbooks that he has edited or co-edited. JKA has often acted as an expert witness in cases involving adverse drug reactions, most often in Coroners’ courts. BG receives funding from the Health Foundation, the NIHR SPCR, the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre Oxford, and the NHS England for work on UK prescribing data. BG has additionally received funding from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, the Wellcome Trust, and WHO to work on better use of data in medicine and receives personal income from speaking and writing for lay audiences on the misuse of science. CJH has received funding from the WHO, FDA, NIHR, NIHR SPCR, and NIHR BRC Oxford; received expenses and fees for his media work (including payments from BBC Radio 4 Inside Health), remuneration from an asbestos case and given free legal advice on mesh cases, income from the publication of a series of toolkit books published by Blackwells, and expenses for teaching EBM; and is also paid for his GP work in NHS out of hours (contract with Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust). CJH is the Director of CEBM, which jointly runs the EvidenceLive Conference with the BMJ and the Overdiagnosis Conference with international partners, based on a non-profit making model. CJH is the Editor in Chief of BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine and is an NIHR Senior Investigator.