Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute for Health Research (HPRU-2012-10041)
NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre
Medical Research Council (MR/M003736/1)
Received: 20 September 2019
Accepted: 13 February 2020
First Online: 2 April 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was conducted as a secondary analysis of anonymised data held by Public Health England and so ethics approval was not required. HES data was linked to microbiological data under Regulation 3 of the Health Service (Control of Patient Information) Regulations 2002.
: Not applicable.
: TPQ, BY, TP, DC, and ASW report grants from the National Institute of Health Research during the conduct of the study. NF reports grants from the Medical Research Council and National Institute of Health Research during the conduct of the study. MM, SH, BMP, and AJ declare that they have no competing interests. JS reports grants from the National Institute for Health Research, the Medical Research Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, and grants and non-financial support from British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy outside the submitted work.