Funding for this research was provided by:
Wellcome Trust (101143/Z/13/Z, 107731/Z/15/Z)
Received: 25 February 2020
Accepted: 8 June 2020
First Online: 29 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The UK and Swedish analyses used only de-identified patient-level data, and therefore, individual informed consent was not required. The UK study protocol was approved by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine ethics committee (15128 /RR/10114) and the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (No. 18_060). The SCREAM cohort was approved by regional institutional review boards and the Swedish National Board of Welfare (2011/1730-1731/2).
: Not applicable.
: All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at ExternalRef removed. PB, ELF, CL, FK, EJK, KEM, MVD, MI, and LAT have nothing to declare. LS reports grants from Wellcome, MRC, NIHR, GSK, BHF, and Diabetes UK outside the submitted work and is a Trustee of the British Heart Foundation. CMC reports participation in work supported by Ontario Ministry of Health, Sanofi, Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, Leo Pharma, Astellas, Janssen, Amgen, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Baxter, Fresenius Medical Care, AstraZeneca, Vifor Fresenius Medical Care, Relypsa, and Bayer outside the submitted work. KB reports grants from Wellcome Trust, Royal Society, British Heart Foundation, and Diabetes UK outside the submitted work. KSLM reports personal fees from Bazian Ltd. and SixThirty Digital Healthcare Incubator outside the submitted work. J-JC reports grants from AstraZeneca, Viforpharma, Astellas, and MSD outside the submitted work. DN reports grants from Glaxo Smith Kline outside the submitted work.