Funding for this research was provided by:
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (R01HL131573)
Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center, University of California San Francisco (P30AG021334)
Received: 8 January 2020
Accepted: 21 July 2020
First Online: 16 September 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Each study obtained approval from their institutional review boards at all centers (ARIC study: Johns Hopkins University, University of Mississippi, University of Minnesota, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of South Florida, Wake Forrest University; MESA study: University of California Los Angeles, University of Minnesota, Northwestern University, Columbia University, Wake Forrest University, Johns Hopkins University; CHS study: University of California Davis, Johns Hopkins University, Wake Forest University, University of Pittsburgh), and all participants provided written informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.