Funding for this research was provided by:
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (01ZX1614J (IntegraMent), 01ZZ1804A (DIFUTURE))
H2020 European Research Council (EU RIA 733161 (MultipleMS))
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GA 2913/1-1)
Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (115303 (ABIRISK))
Received: 14 May 2020
Accepted: 28 August 2020
First Online: 4 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The ethics committees of the <i>Regionala etikprövningsnämnden i Stockholm</i> for Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and of the Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Germany, approved the study, and all participants provided written informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: TFMA, JL, DM, MR, VG, LA, CG, PEHJ, IK, and MP have no competing interests to declare.CH is an employee of Sanofi Genzyme.MA has received speaker honoraria and/or travel grants from Biogen, Novartis, Merck, and Sanofi Genzyme.HH has participated in meetings sponsored by and received speaker honoraria or travel funding from Bayer, Biogen, Merck, Novartis, Sanofi-Genzyme, Siemens, and Teva, and received honoraria for acting as consultant for Biogen and Teva.BK received a research grant and travel compensations from Novartis outside the submitted work.FS has served on scientific advisory boards, been on the steering committees of clinical trials, served as a consultant, received support for congress participation, received speaker honoraria, or received research support for his laboratory from Biogen, Merck, Novartis, Roche, Sanofi Genzyme, and Teva.TO has received unrestricted MS research grants, and honoraria for advisory boards/lectures from Biogen, Novartis, Sanofi, Merck, and Roche.SeS is a former employee and has stocks and/or stock options in Novartis.FD has participated in meetings sponsored by or received honoraria for acting as an advisor/speaker for Almirall, Alexion, Biogen, Celgene, Genzyme-Sanofi, Merck, Novartis Pharma, Roche, and TEVA ratiopharm. His institution has received research grants from Biogen and Genzyme Sanofi. He is section editor of the MSARD Journal (Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders).AFH has received unrestricted research grants from Merck-Serono and BiogenIdec, served as consultant for Johnson & Johnson, and received honoraria for lectures by BiogenIdec and Sanofi-Aventis.During the last 2 years, BH has served on scientific advisory boards for Novartis; he has served as DMSC member for AllergyCare, Polpharma, and TG therapeutics; he or his institution have received speaker honoraria from Desitin; his institution received research grants from Regeneron for MS research; he holds part of a patent for the detection of antibodies against KIR4.1 in a subpopulation of patients with MS. None of these conflicts are relevant to the topic of the study.BMM and BH hold parts of a patent for genetic determinants of neutralizing antibodies to interferon.