Received: 8 September 2020
Accepted: 25 November 2020
First Online: 24 December 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The protocol and amendments for the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 study (NCT00781391) were approved by ethics committees at each participating centre, and all participants provided written informed consent [CitationRef removed, CitationRef removed]. This <i>post hoc</i> analysis was approved by an independent review panel through application to ExternalRef removed.
: Not applicable.
: CW and CPG hold research funding from Bristol-Myers-Squibb, unrelated to this work. CPG has provided consultancy to Daiichi Sankyo and Bayer.