Received: 29 September 2020
Accepted: 16 December 2020
First Online: 21 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The KCH component of the project operated under London South East Research Ethics Committee (reference 18/LO/2048) approval granted to the King’s Electronic Records Research Interface (KERRI); specific work on COVID-19 research was reviewed with expert patient input on a virtual committee with Caldicott Guardian oversight. The UHS validation was performed as part of an urgent service evaluation agreed with approval from trust research leads and the Caldicott Guardian. For UCH, ethical approval was given by East Midlands - Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (REF: 20/EM/0114; IRAS: 282900). The UHB component was operated under the PIONEER Health Data Research Hub in Acute Care ethical approval provided by the East Midlands Derby REC (reference: 20/EM/0158). For UHBW, the project was considered as service evaluation by the organisational review board. Informed consent was deemed unnecessary due to the retrospective observational nature of the data. Ethical approval for GSTT was granted by the London Bromley Research Ethics Committee (reference 20/HRA/1871) to the King’s Health Partners Data Analytics and Modelling COVID-19 Group to collect clinically relevant data points from patient’s electronic health records. The Wuhan validation was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Shanghai Dongfang Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital. For the OUH validation, a project protocol was approved by the Regional Ethical Committee of South-East Norway (Reference number 137045) and the OUH data protection officer (Reference number 20/08822). Informed consent in the OUH cohort was waived because of the strictly observational nature of the project.
: Not applicable.
: JTHT received research support and funding from InnovateUK, Bristol-Myers-Squibb, iRhythm Technologies, and holds shares < £5000 in Glaxo Smithkline and Biogen.