Funding for this research was provided by:
Wellcome Trust (110255/Z/15/Z, 202800/Z/16/Z, 106289/Z/14/Z, 064693, 079110, 095778, 203077/Z/16/Z)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (MC-A760-5QX00)
FP7 Ideas: European Research Council (Grant agreement No 294557)
Received: 5 December 2019
Accepted: 22 January 2020
First Online: 27 February 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approvals were obtained for Kilifi, Kenya (by the Scientific Ethics Review Unit of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI/SERU/CGMR-C/046/3257/2983)); Entebbe, Uganda (locally by the Uganda Virus Research Institute (GC/127/12/07/32) and Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (MV625), and in the UK by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (A340) and Oxford Tropical Research (OTR) (39-12, 42-14 and 37-15) Ethics Committees); Banfora, Burkina Faso (by Ministere de la Recherche Scientifique et de l’Innovation in Burkina Faso (2014-12-151) and the OTR Ethics Committees (41-12)); Soweto, South Africa (by the University of Witwatersrand Human Research (M130714) and the OTR Ethics Committees (1042-13 and 42-14)); and West Kiang, The Gambia (by the Gambian Government/Medical Research Council Ethics Committee (874/830)). Informed written consent was obtained from all children’s parents or guardians.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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