Received: 29 September 2020
Accepted: 19 January 2021
First Online: 16 March 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The protocols of NHANES were approved by the institutional review board of the National Center for Health Statistics, CDC. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant before participation in this study.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. James R. Hébert owns controlling interest in Connecting Health Innovations LLC (CHI), a company that has licensed the right to his invention of the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) from the University of South Carolina in order to develop computer and smart phone applications for patient counseling and dietary intervention in clinical settings. Drs. Nitin Shivappa and Michael Wirth are employees of CHI. The subject matter of this paper will not have any direct bearing on that work, nor has that activity exerted any influence on this project.Dr. Kenneth Rockwood is Chief Science Officer of DGI Clinical, which in the last 5 years has contracts with pharma and device manufacturers (Baxter, Baxalta, Shire, Hollister, Nutricia, Roche, Otsuka) on individualized outcome measurement. In 2017, he attended an advisory board meeting with Lundbeck and in 2019 another with Nutricia. Otherwise, any personal fees are for invited guest lectures and academic symposia, received directly from event organizers, chiefly for presentations on frailty. He is Associate Director of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging, which is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and with additional funding from the Alzheimer Society of Canada and several other charities.Other authors declare no potential competing interests.