Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (K23AI120793;R21AI143341, R01AI113725;R01AI122932;R21Al126361)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (UM1AI068632 (IMPAACT LOC);UM1AI068616 (IMPAACT SDMC);UM1AI106716 (IMPAACT LC);HHSN275201800001I, R01HD090927)
U.S. Department of Defense (W8IXWH1910926)
Received: 22 January 2021
Accepted: 7 April 2021
First Online: 18 May 2021
: This study was approved by the institutional review board of University of Miami (HSRO20040353). Written informed consent was obtained from the legal guardians of the children in parent study (IMPAACT P1041 study, ExternalRef removed number, NCT0008119).
: Not applicable.
: Y. H, C.L. and C.J.L. report other support from NanoPin Technologies, Inc., outside the submitted work; In addition, Y. H. has a patent “Compositions and methods of determining a level of active <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> infectious in a subject” licensed to NanoPin Technologies, Inc. Dr. Liu has patents PCT/US18/15742 and PCT/US18/16115 with royalties paid to NanoPin Technologies Inc.. All other authors declare no competing interests.