Funding for this research was provided by:
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FRN 143219)
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R01HD050625)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R01DK118409)
China Scholarship Council
Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto
Received: 10 May 2021
Accepted: 12 August 2021
First Online: 8 October 2021
: Written informed consents were obtained from all participants before partaking in any research activities. The study was approved by the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Institutional Review Board (#CN-04EGund-03-H and #1279812-10) and the Office of Research Ethics at University of Toronto (#38188).
: Consent to publish is not applicable to this article as no details on individuals were reported in the manuscript.
: The authors of this manuscript have the following competing interests: MBW has declared a research grant from Janssen Pharmaceuticals Company (shared with EPG). EPG has declared the following competing interest: R01HL145808-01 (EPG, PI). R01DK118409-01 (EPG, PI). R01HD095128-01 (EPG, Co-I). R21HL145419-01 (EPG, Co-I). R01DK106201-01 (EPG, PI). R01HD022965 (EPG, Consultant). American Institute for Research (AIR) (EPG, PI). Janssen Pharmaceuticals Company, funding ended 2018 (EPG, PI) (shared with MBW).