Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (10077474)
Received: 22 March 2021
Accepted: 4 October 2021
First Online: 24 November 2021
: The study was approved by the institutional review boards of the Seoul National University Hospital (No. E-2012-004-1177) and the UK Biobank consortium (application No. 53799). The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The requirement for informed consent was waived because the study analyzed public databases.
: Not applicable
: EKC: research grants from Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Biosense Webster, Chong Kun Dang, Daiichi-Sankyo, Dreamtech Co., Ltd., Medtronic, Samjinpharm, Sanofi-Aventis, Seers Technology, Skylabs, and Yuhan. No fees are received personally. The other authors declare no competing interests.