Funding for this research was provided by:
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (GE 3461/1-1, Collaborative Research Centre 1123 (B3))
Medizinischen Fakultät, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (FöFoLe-Forschungsprojekt Reg.-Nr. 1120)
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (R01NS103924, U01NS069763)
American Heart Association (Bugher Foundation)
Wellcome Trust (204623/Z/16/Z)
British Heart Foundation (RE/18/4/34215)
St. George's, University of London (CL-2020-16-001)
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (EXC 2145 SyNergy – ID 390857198)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00002/7)
Received: 18 March 2022
Accepted: 20 June 2022
First Online: 11 August 2022
: The UK Biobank obtained approval from the Northwest Multi-Center Research Ethics Committee (UK Biobank is 11/NW/0382). All participants provided written informed consent according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Data access for this analysis was granted for application #2532.
: Not applicable.
: CDA has received sponsored research support from the American Heart Association, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Bayer AG, and has consulted for ApoPharma. JMMH is employed by Novo Nordisk. TGR, GKH, and DG are employed part-time by Novo Nordisk. DG is an Editorial Board Member of BMC Medicine; he had no role in the handling or peer review of the manuscript. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.