Funding for this research was provided by:
US National Institutes of Health Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH) Program (K12HD052163)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (K01DK120807)
Kaiser Permanente Northern California Community Benefits Program (RNG209492)
NIDDK Health Delivery Systems – Center for Diabetes Translational Research (HDS-CDTR) Pilot and Feasibility Program (P30DK092924)
National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship (DGE1752814)
Received: 15 February 2022
Accepted: 27 July 2022
First Online: 15 September 2022
: This data-only project was approved by the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Institutional Review Board, which waived the requirement for informed consent from participants.
: Not applicable.
: Yeyi Zhu is a member of the BMC Medicine editorial board. None of the authors, including Yeyi Zhu, had a role in the peer review or handling of this manuscript. The authors, other than Yeyi Zhu, declare that they have no competing interests.