Funding for this research was provided by:
Academy of Medical Sciences (SGL023\1021)
Received: 20 February 2022
Accepted: 4 August 2022
First Online: 26 September 2022
: The Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP) is commissioned by NHS England to commission and manage the National Clinical Audit and Patient Outcomes Programme (NCAPOP). As part of this programme, the NHFD is a quality improvement initiative commissioned by HQIP/NHS England. NHFD data is collected under section 251 of the NHS Act 2016 following approval by the HRA Confidentiality Advisory Group (CAG 8-03(PR11)/2013). Only pseudonymised data are sent to the University of Oxford for this project. This research project was reviewed by HQIP and approved as an extended analysis and output of the NHFD clinical audit programme. Ethical approval was not sought in line with Governance Arrangements for Research Ethics Committee (GAfREC) guidance for this secondary analysis of administrative data.
: Not applicable.
: All authors declare: funding was received for the submitted work as described in the Funding statement; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years, and no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.