Funding for this research was provided by:
Egg Farmers of Canada (052439)
Global Frontier Hybrid Interface Materials (052504)
Canadian Poultry Research Council (052642)
Poultry Industry Council (052509)
Natural Science and Engineering Council of Canada (401082)
Ontario Ministry of Food Agriculture and Rural Affairs (030276)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-05-07
Received: 20 January 2019
Accepted: 25 April 2019
First Online: 7 May 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All animal use and procedures were approved by the University of Guelph Animal Care Committee (AUP 3321). The institution is registered under the Animals for Research Act of Ontario and holds a Good Animal Practice certificate issued by the Canadian Council for Animal Care. The owner of the private farm from which some turkeys were donated verbally consented to participate.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. TMW is the Egg Farmers of Canada Chair in Poultry Welfare Research.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.