Received: 25 April 2019
Accepted: 31 July 2019
First Online: 6 August 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethics regarding this study were approved by The Promotion and Ethics Committee for Research of the Equine Research Institute under the identification number H25–4, and also authorized ex post facto by the Director of Equine Research Institute under the identification number 19–4. The Japan Racing Association is the sporting authority, and we collected clinical samples and performed this study as a part of regular activities for disease prevention. The owners of racehorses have been notified that their horses might be subjected to mandatory sampling of clinical specimens for diagnostic and research purposes.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.