Funding for this research was provided by:
Higher Education Commission, Pakistan
Received: 18 July 2018
Accepted: 20 September 2019
First Online: 21 October 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The Department of Veterinary Pathology, PMAS Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan, ruled that no formal ethics approval was required to conduct this research (no ethical approval needed in Pakistan for animal sampling in the field). Before conducting the research, verbal informed consent was obtained from the owners or managers of the poultry farms included in this study. (No written consent was obtained as not all participants were literate; written consents are not compulsory for animal sampling).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.