Received: 6 February 2019
Accepted: 27 November 2019
First Online: 8 January 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: According to the Polish animal law (The Act on the protection of Animals used for scientific and educational purposes, which was passed in January 2015 and transposed EU Directive 2010/63/EU into current Polish legislation), the Approval from the Local Ethical Committee for Animal Experiments in Warsaw was not required. The samples were collected during routine diagnostic testing. Pigeons’ owners gave verbal informed consent for the use of their pigeons’ samples (cloacal swabs). All swab-samples were collected by veterinarian according to the ethical guidelines and animal welfare, minimizing the stress of pigeons. The Ethical Committee approved this procedure. All swabs were taken using sterile swab sticks (Deltalab, Spain). The invasive methods, anesthesia, or euthanasia were not applied during collecting samples.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.