Funding for this research was provided by:
University of Minnesota AHC, DAAD-Germany In-Country Scholarships
Received: 12 September 2019
Accepted: 14 February 2020
First Online: 21 February 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Review Committee (SBLS/REC/13/016), Makerere University, Uganda. Verbal informed consent was obtained from farmers before they were interviewed and samples taken from their cattle. This was preferred over written informed consent because in some regions of Uganda like Karamoja, most of the farmers cannot write or read and do not have legally appointed representatives. Verbal informed consent was obtained through a native language speaker (interviewer) who explained to the cattle farmers the benefits and risks involved with participating in this study. This consent was documented by the interviewer in a verbal consent document. The verbal consent documentation as well as the main protocols leading to results presented in this manuscript were reviewed and approved by the Makerere University, College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, School of Biosecurity, Biotechnical and Laboratory Sciences (SBLS) Research and Ethics committee.
: Not applicable.
: The authors of this paper do not have any financial or personal relationship with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence or bias the content of the paper. The authors therefore declare that they have no competing interests in the publication of this paper.