Funding for this research was provided by:
Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz (17-21)
Received: 12 December 2019
Accepted: 10 March 2020
First Online: 24 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The need for ethical approval was deemed unnecessary because the study was non-experimental as all animal blood samples used in this study were sent in to the Bavarian Health and Food safety authority for diagnostic investigation according to national regulations (Verordnung zum Schutz der Rinder vor einer Infektion mit dem Bovinen Herpesvirus Typ 1 (BHV1-Verordnung)). All samples are accompanied by a written request for testing from the animal owners. Diagnostic investigations at the veterinary virology of the Bavarian Health and Food safety authority routinely include the assessment of potential differential diagnostics following institutional guidelines.Tissue samples and nasal swabs used for this study were sent in or collected in the pathology department in order to identify the cause of disease by order of the animal owner. For this reason, also in this part of the study, the need for ethical approval was deemed unnecessary.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.