Funding for this research was provided by:
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 31872241)
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2572017PZ14)
Ministry of Science and Technology (2016YFC0503200)
Received: 15 July 2020
Accepted: 18 September 2020
First Online: 29 September 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Three fecal samples of the captive North China leopard were randomly collected with the permission of the authorities of Zhengzhou Zoo in Henan Province, China. And three wild leopard fecal samples were collected in the field, with the permission of the authorities of Tieqiaoshan Provincial Nature Reserve in Shanxi province, China. There is no conflict of interest with species conservation guidelines. All procedures related to animal’s research were approved by the Ethics and Welfare of Experiment Animals Committee affiliated to Northeast Forestry University.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.