Funding for this research was provided by:
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (PTDC/CVT-CVT/30145/2017, UIDP/CVT/00276/2020, SFRH/BD/125657/2016, SFRH/BD/130923/2017, DL57/2016/CP1438/CT0001)
Received: 29 June 2020
Accepted: 21 October 2020
First Online: 29 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The bovine preputial samples were collected by certified veterinarians, using the OIE recommended sampling method, as part of the breeding soundness examination of bulls, and as a clinical service requested by owners to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Lisbon. Since all samples were collected for diagnostic purposes, according to EU and national legislation (Directive 2010/63/EU and Decree-law no. 113/2013, respectively) no ethical approval from an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee or other relevant ethics board was required. According to the regulation of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Lisbon, which is publicly available, all clinical and diagnostic procedures and records may be used for teaching and research purposes, always respecting its confidentiality. Despite this, animal owners were informed and verbal consent was obtained to use data from their animals in the study.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.