Funding for this research was provided by:
FP7 Ideas: European Research Council (2015-FED-192)
Received: 10 June 2020
Accepted: 19 February 2021
First Online: 8 March 2021
: As fecal samples were taken from animals at the slaughterhouse and in the field after excretion, “use of live animals for scientific purposes” (within the meaning of the Rural Code, Art R214–87 and following) was not relevant; no invasive procedure was conducted on live animals. Furthermore, the project was considered to be outside the scope of the regulations on animal experimentation by the chairman of the Ethics Committee on animal experimentation of the Antilles and Guyane (registered with the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation No. 69). Thus, according to French national law for the protection of animals (No. 2013–118), which reproduces European directive 2010/63/UE on the protection of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, no ethics committee approval was deemed necessary according to Article 7.1 on recommendations for animal welfare and Article 7.8 on use of animals in research and education of the World Organization for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code, used in France. The entity responsible for the animals was the slaughterhouse, and authorization for sample collection was obtained from the director of the slaughterhouse. Sampling of pig, beef cattle, and chicken feces was authorized verbally by the owners, who are responsible for the animals.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.