Received: 14 December 2021
Accepted: 17 March 2022
First Online: 2 April 2022
: The ducks used in this study were captured with the approval of Tottori Prefecture (permission numbers: 201800217771 and 201900216410). All animal experiments were performed according to the Guidelines for Proper Conduct of Animal Experiments of the Science Council of Japan (ExternalRef removed). The study was also carried out in accordance with the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (ExternalRef removed). All animal experiments were conducted in self-contained isolator units (CLEA Japan, Tokyo) in a biosafety level 3 laboratory at the Avian Zoonosis Research Center, Tottori University, Japan. The experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee of Tottori University and performed in accordance with the guidelines of the institutional animal care and use committee of Tottori University (approval number 19-T-03). The study protocol stipulated that throughout the study any birds that became unable to eat or drink were to be euthanized, and recorded as dead at the time of the following day’s observation.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.