Funding for this research was provided by:
(U01CA196406-03S1, U01CA196406, P30CA023100)
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (R01DE026644)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (T32GM008806)
Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program (28DT-0011)
Received: 13 May 2020
Accepted: 9 November 2020
First Online: 18 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The test specimen was purchased from Asterand Bioscience Inc. and was collected under the approval of an IRB or an Independent Ethics committee and obtained from a Vietnamese donor, who provided informed consent. The retrospective use of DCIS specimen was approved by the UC San Francisco Institutional Review Board and UC San Diego Institutional Review Board who granted a waiver of informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.