Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 18 December 2019
Accepted: 5 May 2020
First Online: 25 May 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The informed consent forms and study protocols for the PINNACLE studies were approved by appropriate institutional review boards and independent ethics committees (names and approval numbers have been previously published [CitationRef removed, CitationRef removed]), and patients provided written informed consent prior to screening.
: Not applicable.
: FJM reports grants from AstraZeneca during the conduct of the study; personal fees and non-financial support from American College of Chest Physicians, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Concert, Continuing Education, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Inova Fairfax Health System, Miller Communications, National Association for Continuing Education, Novartis, Pearl – a member of the AstraZeneca Group, PeerView Communications, Prime Communications, Puerto Rican Respiratory Society, Roche, Sunovion, and Theravance; non-financial support from ProterixBio; personal fees from American Thoracic Society, Columbia University, Haymarket Communications, Integritas, inThought Research, MD Magazine, Methodist Hospital Brooklyn, New York University, Unity, UpToDate, WebMD/MedScape, and Western Connecticut Health Network; and grants from National Institutes of Health, outside of the submitted work.BJL is one of several co-investigators on an AstraZeneca-sponsored grant received by the University of Dundee to support genomic studies in COPD and an investigator-initiated grant from AstraZeneca. He has also received speaker fees and consulting fees from AstraZeneca; payment for consulting and speaking from Boehringer Ingelheim and Chiesi; grant support from Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Mylan, and Janssen; advisory board and speaker fees from Teva; and consulting fees from Cipla, Dr. Reddys, Genentech, Glenmark, Lupin, Novartis, Sandoz, and Sanofi.KFR reports personal fees from AstraZeneca, Berlin-Chemie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi Pharmaceuticals, InterMune, Novartis, Sanofi, and Teva; and grants from Ministry of Education and Science, Germany, outside of the submitted work.DJC is supported in part by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Barts Biomedical Research Center and received a grant from Pearl – a member of the AstraZeneca group for normal recruitment of patients.GTF reports grants, personal fees, and non-financial support from AstraZeneca during the conduct of the study; grants, personal fees, and non-financial support from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Pearl – a member of the AstraZeneca Group, and Sunovion; grants and personal fees from Theravance; and personal fees from Circassia, GlaxoSmithKline, Innoviva, Mylan, and Verona, outside of the submitted work.SS reports grant support from AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, and Sanofi; and other support from Aradigm, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Circassia, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Nabriva Therapeutics, Novavax, Paratek, Pulmonx, Sunovion, and Theravance Biopharma.GJF reports no conflict of interest in this work.MJ and CR are employees of AstraZeneca and hold stock and/or stock options in the company. GO is a former employee of AstraZeneca and holds stock and/or stock options in the company.