Funding for this research was provided by:
The Swedish Heart and Lung foundation (N/A)
The VisareNorr Fund/Northern County Council’s Regional Federation (N/A)
The Swedish Heart and Lung Association (N/A)
The County Council of Norrbotten (N/A)
The County Council of Västerbotten (N/A)
The Swedish Respiratory Society (N/A)
King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria’s Freemason Foundation (N/A)
Umeå University (N/A)
British Heart Foundation (Butler Senior Clinical Research Fellowship FS/16/14/32023)
Received: 30 January 2020
Accepted: 18 June 2020
First Online: 26 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board at Umeå University, Sweden, project approval numbers: Um dnr 04–045 M and 2015/446-31Ö.
: Not applicable.
: The authors report no conflict of interest with regard to this manuscript.Dr. Nilsson reports personal fees from Boeringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. Prof. Mills reports grants from Abbott Diagnostics, personal fees from Abbott Diagnostics, grants from Siemens Healthineers, personal fees from Siemens Healthineers, personal fees from Singulex, outside the submitted work. Dr. Backman reports personal fees from Boeringer Ingelheim and Astra Zeneca, outside the submitted work. Prof. Rönmark reports grants from Swedish heart and lung foundation, grants from ALF-a regional agreement between Umeå university and Norrbotten county council, grants from Swedish asthma and allergy foundation, grants from Norrbotten county council, grants from Nord Forsk, grants from FORMAS, grants from AstraZeneca, grants from GlaxoSmithKline, during the conduct of the study. Dr. Lindberg reports personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from AstraZeneca, personal fees from Novartis, personal fees from Active Care, outside the submitted work.