Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 17 November 2020
Accepted: 6 January 2021
First Online: 21 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The OPCRD is approved by the Trent Multi-Centre Research Ethics Committee for clinical research use. This study was approved by the Anonymised Data Ethics & Protocol Transparency committee (ADEPT1419). Since the study included retrospective anonymised data, no informed consent was required.
: Not applicable.
: Helgo Magnussen reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim during the conduct of the study and personal fees from AstraZeneca, Novartis, and ndd Medical Technologies, Inc. outside the submitted work. Marc Miravitlles has received speaker fees from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cipla, Menarini, Rovi, Bial, Sandoz, Zambon, CSL Behring, Grifols and Novartis, consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, GlaxoSmithKline, Bial, Gebro Pharma, Kamada, CSL Behring, Laboratorios Esteve, Ferrer, Mereo Biopharma, Verona Pharma, TEVA, Spin Therapeutics, pH Pharma, Novartis, Sanofi and Grifols and research grants from GlaxoSmithKline and Grifols. Sarah Lucas is an employee of the Respiratory Effectiveness Group, who received funding from Boehringer Ingelheim for conducting this study. Jennifer Quint has received grants from The Health Foundation, MRC, GSK, Bayer, BI, British Lung Foundation, IQVIA, Chiesi AZ, Insmed and Asthma UK outside the submitted work; grants and personal fees from GlaxoSmithKline, Boehringer Ingelheim, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Insmed. Ronald J. Dandurand has received research grants from AstraZeneca Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Novatis, Pfizer and Teva Pharma, consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Grifols, and speaking fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Novartis. Nicolas Roche reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Pfizer and personal fees from Teva, GSK, AstraZeneca, Chiesi, Sanofi, Trudell, Zambon. David Price has board membership with Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Circassia, Mylan, Mundipharma, Novartis, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Sanofi Genzyme, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Thermofisher; consultancy agreements with Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, GlaxoSmithKline, Mylan, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Theravance; grants and unrestricted funding for investigator-initiated studies (conducted through Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd) from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Circassia, Mylan, Mundipharma, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Respiratory Effectiveness Group, Sanofi Genzyme, Teva Pharmaceuticals, Theravance, UK National Health Service; payment for lectures/speaking engagements from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chiesi, Cipla, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyorin, Mylan, Mundipharma, Novartis, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Sanofi Genzyme, Teva Pharmaceuticals; payment for the development of educational materials from Mundipharma, Novartis; payment for travel/accommodation/meeting expenses from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Mundipharma, Mylan, Novartis, Thermofisher; funding for patient enrolment or completion of research from Novartis; stock/stock options from AKL Research and Development Ltd which produces phytopharmaceuticals; owns 74% of the social enterprise Optimum Patient Care Ltd (Australia and UK) and 74% of Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute Pte Ltd (Singapore); 5% shareholding in Timestamp which develops adherence monitoring technology; is peer reviewer for grant committees of the Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation programme, and Health Technology Assessment; and was an expert witness for GlaxoSmithKline.